Restoring the Trumpeter Swan to the Midwest, with emphasis on the Michigan effort.
JOE JOHNSON, Ketfogg Biol. Station, Richland, MI
The Trumpeter Swan had been missing from the Midwest for more than a century. Several Great Lakes states and Ontario began restoration efforts in the mid-1980s. Goals and objectives, as well as restoration methods, varied among states. Banding methods included standard federal leg bands, plastic tarsal and neck collars, and patagial bands. A very limited number of swans were tracked with radio/satellite collars. By 2004, 2272 swans had been released. An additional 5285 wild cygnets have been reared to flight. Our last survey indicated over 4500 swans, including 402 successful nesting pairs that produced over 1200 cygnets in the Midwest in 2004.