Threats to the Critically Endangered Christmas Island Frigatebird Fregata Andrewsi in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia, and Implications for Reconsidering Conservation Priorities
The Christmas Island Frigatebird Fregata andrewsi is one of the most endangered seabirds in the world. The reasons for its population decline are unknown, but recommended protection measures and management actions focus on the species’ breeding site. Threats to the species away from Christmas Island have received little consideration. Here, we report on several previously undescribed anthropogenic threats to Christmas Island Frigatebirds based on observations in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia: accidental entanglement in fishing gear, as well as capture, poisoning and shooting. Based on these findings, we suggest that it is imperative to reconsider the present management strategies and conservation priorities for the species and to urgently include protection measures away from Christmas Island.
Keywords: Christmas Island Frigatebird, Fregata andrewsi, conservation, mortality, anthropogenic threats, Jakarta Bay, Southeast Asia